If we look at the minimum temperatures observed this morning in Europe (Figure1), it is clear how the coldwave has reached, from Russia/Ukraine, the Balkans, Central Europe and Northern Italy.
The lowest values are observed between Ukraine and Russia (-10/-12°C) and between Germany and Poland (-6/-8 °C). Temperatures close to (or slightly below zero) are observed also in eastern France, Po valley and Balkans.
The cold air will move westward during the day towards the UK and the Atlantic, instead still mild conditions are expected in Spain, Portugal, southern Italy and Greece. To notice how Scandinavia and Iceland, but also the Baltic states see very mild conditions (compare with the observed average for these areas), with 10-12°C observed in Iceland.
The mild conditions in Northern Europe are explained by the high-pressure system positioned over Scandinavia (Figure2), which causes cold air (Continental) from Russia to move towards the west and mild (Tropical) air from the low-mid Atlantic to move towards Iceland and Scandinavia. This condition should last for other 3/4 days.
Regarding the weather conditions (Figure3), bright conditions are observed in Central Europe and in the UK, instead more clouds with rainfall/ snow between Poland, Belarus and Russia due to the occluded front moving southwards (Figure2). Rainfall is observed also in south-east Europe (mainly Greece) and southern Italy. Finally, a long band of clouds is positioned on the Atlantic, from Iceland to Spain. This is the area between the continental (and drier) air coming from the east and the warmer (and moist) air on the Atlantic. This is causing some rainfall between Spain and Portugal and overcast conditions west of Ireland.